Exposure DB schema

The exposure schema was developed based on GEM Taxonomy 2.0 to accommodate the most important spatial features commonly employed in risk analysis to identify and estimate exposed value. The GED4ALL database schema contains the following tables: contribution, exposure_model, asset, occupancy, cost, cost_type, and tags.

Multiple types of structural/infrastructure assets and socio-economic exposure can be stored in the exposure database with attributes relevant to assessing risk from multiple hazards. The exposure schema provides 11 defined exposure types, for consistent classification of assets in different datasets: Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Healthcare, Education, Government, Infrastructure, Crop, Livestock, Forestry, and Mixed (as in cf_common.occupancy_enum). The tables include general attributes that can be adapted to each asset type. More specific indicators can be stored using the tags table, e.g. population gender and age, urban growth rate, GDP or others.

Exposure can be stored at multiple scales and using polygon (e.g., for a building footprint or number of buildings in a district), polyline (e.g. road network segment), and point (e.g. geolocated building at a lat,lon position). Exposure units can be assigned the number night-time or day-time occupants, to represent population exposure.

Screenshot ERD (exposure schema): exposure table contents (green) and links to common tables (yellow). The schema includes a SQL view (cyan).

Table: ged4all.exposure_model

Each row in this table represents a collection of assets with a taxonomy_source (GEM Taxonomy, SynerG, FAO, etc) and category (buildings, road network, etc). A model can optionally contain one or more cost types (see model_cost_type), e.g. structural, contents and can also optionally contain information about the area occupied by the assets. Finally, a model can optionally specify any number of "tags", which can be applied to each asset.

Req Field name Type Reference table Description
* id INT Unique number ID
* name VARCHAR Name of exposure model
description VARCHAR Description of exposure model
taxonomy_source VARCHAR Name of taxonomy source
* category ENUM ged4all.category_enum Type of asset
area_type VARCHAR Aggregated or per asset
area_unit VARCHAR Unit of measure of area
tag_names VARCHAR Additional tag information
use ENUM cf_common.occupancy_enum Usage type of the asset (e.g. residential, commercial)

Table: ged4all.asset

Each row in the asset table represents a single asset or collection of assets, such as a building, aggregated collection of buildings, an item in an infrastructure network, or an area of farmland. The number_of_units field is used to specify the number of assets of this type at this location. The taxonomy value must be set to a valid taxonomy string using the taxonomy system specified in the exposure_model table, and identifies the typology of this asset.

There are two geometry fields providing geospatial information: - The "the_geom" field specifies a single point location and can be considered as a composite representation of latitude, longitude and a reference to WGS84. Only Point geometries are stored in this field. - The "full_geom" field is an optional representation of any geometry type (point, line, polygon, multipoint, multi-line, etc.) supported by the standard and can be used to describe the footprint of a building, regional boundaries, or lifelines.type (point, line, polygon, multipoint, multi-line, etc.) supported by the standard and can be used to describe the footprint of a building, regional boundaries, or lifelines.

Req Field name Type Reference table Description
* id INT Unique number ID
* exposure_model_id INT ged4all.exposure_model Unique number ID of source exposure model
* asset_ref VARCHAR Alphanumeric code supplied by user
* taxonomy VARCHAR Alphanumeric code for the taxonomy source
number_of_units FLOAT Number of assets represented
area FLOAT exposure_model.area_unit Area of the asset in the units specified
* the_geom GEOM Associated geometry data (point location)
full_geom GEOM Associated geometry data (polygon, multiline, multipolygon...)

Table: ged4all.cost_type

Each exposure model can optionally have one or more types of cost associated with loss or damage to assets. For example, the cost of the building structure by square meter or the cost of the contents of a single building. Each cost type entry describes a category of cost, an aggregation type and a unit.

Req Field name Type Reference table Description
* id INT Unique number ID
* exposure_model_id INT ged4all.exposure_model Unique number ID of source exposure model
* cost_type_name VARCHAR Type of asset cost (structural, non-structural, contents, business interruption)
* aggregation_type VARCHAR Aggregated or per asset
unit VARCHAR Cost unit of measure

Table: ged4all.cost

Each row in the cost table represents a cost of a given cost type for a given asset. The asset_id and cost_type_id fields are foreign keys used to identify an asset and model_cost_type. The value field provides the actual cost value in the unit specified in the corresponding model_cost_type entry.

Req Field name Type Reference table Description
* id INT Unique number ID
* asset_id INT ged4all.asset Unique number ID of the asset
* cost_type_id INT ged4all.cost_type Unique number ID of the cost type
* value FLOAT Cost value
deductible FLOAT
insurance_limit FLOAT

Table: ged4all.occupants

The occupancy table is used to store information about the occupants of an asset in a given period, for example, the number of people in a given building during the day and during the night. For some cases the period might refer to a season, for example when considering livestock or agricultural assets. In some communities the term "occupancy" is used to refer to building usage, for example "industrial" or "residential"; this concept can be modelled in the GED4ALL schema using tags and/or by using a taxonomy system that supports building usage specification, such as the GEM Building Taxonomy.

Req Field name Type Reference table Description
* id INT Unique number ID
* asset_id INT ged4all.asset Unique number ID of the asset
* period VARCHAR Occupancy type (night/day)
* num_occupants FLOAT Number of occupants

Table: ged4all.tags

Each row in the tags table represents a name and value pair for a given asset. The asset_id is a foreign key used to identify an asset. The name field represents the name of the tag while the value field contains the associated value. Tags may be used to store any named scalar information with an asset, but in particular are useful for storing socio-economic indicators and their associated values, and also for grouping assets into census tracts, for example.

Req Field name Type Reference table Description
* id INT Unique number ID
* asset_id INT ged4all.asset Unique number ID of the asset
* name VARCHAR Name of the tag
* value VARCHAR Number associated with the tag


ENUM name Types Description
  • Buildings
  • Indicators
  • Infrastructure
  • Crops, livestock and forestry
Type of asset category

Taxonomy: GED4all

The exposure schema can accomodate different descriptions of assets using a taxonomy which describes their characteristics (e.g. building occupancy, construction, age, height, etc. or road surface type). The taxonomy being applied to a dataset is defined in ged4all.exposure_model.taxonomy_source. The taxonomy string, which describes all the characteristics of the asset (or group of assets of the same type), is defined at ged4all.asset.taxonomy.
We encourage the use of GED4all taxonomy, described in full here.
In order to summarise all the asset information into a single alphanumeric string, a tool will be provided, similar to the 'taxtweb' tool available from GEM dedicated to buildings taxonomy.

The taxonomy covers four main categories:


The buildings taxonomy is based on GEM openquake taxonomy, with some semplifications. The taxonomy string is built as sequence of attributes separeted by slash:


Missing attributes can be skipped from the string, e.g.

2-floors detached residential dwelling, reinforced concrete structure: CR/H:2/RES1

Attribute Code Description
Material of the Lateral Load-Resisting System (LLRS) -- Unknown material
C Concrete, unknown reinforcement
CU Concrete, unreinforced *
CR Concrete, reinforced
SRC Concrete, composite with steel section
S Steel
ME Metal (except steel)
M Masonry, unknown reinforcement
MUR Masonry, unreinforced
MCF Masonry, confined
MR Masonry, reinforced
E Earth, unknown reinforcement
EU Earth, unreinforced
ER Earth, reinforced
W Wood
MIX Mixed materials (hybrid or composite)
INF Informal materials
MATO Other material
Height -- Number of storeys unknown
H:n n is the exact number of storeys above ground
HBET:a-b a-b is the range of number of storeys above ground (a=upper bound, and b= lower bound). a-b, range of number of storeys above
HAPP:n HAPP:n, approximate number of storeys above ground.
Date of Construction or Retrofit -- Year unknown
Y :n n is the exact date of construction or retrofit
YBET:a-b a nd b are the upper and lower bound for the date of construction or retrofit
YPRE:n n is the latest possible date of construction or retrofit
YAPP:n n is the approximate date of construction or retrofit
Occupancy -- Unknown occupancy type
RES Residential, unknown type
RES1 Residential, Single dwelling
RES2 Residential, Multi-unit
RES2A Residential, 2 Units (duplex)
RES2B Residential, 3-4 Units
RES2C Residential, 5-9 Units
RES2D Residential, 10-19 Units
RES2E Residential, 20-49 Units
RES2F Residential, 50+ Units
RES3 Residential, Temporary lodging
RES4 Residential, Institutional housing
RES5 Residential, Mobile home
COM Commercial and public, Unknown type
COM1 Commercial and public, Retail trade
COM2 Commercial and public, Wholesale trade and storage (warehouse)
COM3 Commercial and public, Offices, professional/technical services
COM4 Commercial and public, Hospital/medical clinic
COM5 Commercial and public, Entertainment
COM6 Commercial and public, Public building
COM7 Commercial and public, Covered parking garage
COM8 Commercial and public, Bus station
COM9 Commercial and public, Railway station
COM10 Commercial and public, Airport
COM11 Commercial and public, Recreation and leisure
MIX Mixed, unknown type
MIX1 Mixed use, Mostly residential and commercial
MIX2 Mixed use, Mostly commercial and residential
MIX3 Mixed use, Mostly commercial and industrial
MIX4 Mixed use, Mostly residential and industrial
MIX5 Mixed use, Mostly industrial and commercial
MIX6 Mixed use, Mostly industrial and residential
IND Industrial, unknown type
IND1 Industrial, Heavy industrial
IND2 Industrial, Light industrial
AGR Agriculture, unknown type
AGR1 Agriculture, Produce storage
AGR2 Agriculture, Animal shelter
AGR3 Agriculture, Agricultural processing
ASS Assembly, unknown type
ASS1 Assembly, Religious gathering
ASS2 Assembly, Arena
ASS3 Assembly, Cinema or concert hall
ASS4 Assembly, Other gatherings
GOV Government, unknown type
GOV1 Government, general services
GOV2 Government, emergency response
EDU Education, unknown type
EDU1 Education, Pre-school facility
EDU2 Education, School
EDU3 Education, College/university, offices and/or classrooms
EDU4 Education, College/university, research facilities and/or labs
OCO Other occupancy type
Ground floor hydrodynamics -- Ground floor hydrodynamics unknown
GFO Ground floor plan fully open (no walls)
GFH Ground floor plan partially open (i.e. with at least 50% of walls).
GFM Not open, many doors and/or windows (i.e. more than 20% of wall surface area).
GFN Not open, few doors and/or windows (i.e. less than 20% of wall surface area)
Roof Shape -- Unknown roof shape
RSH1 Flat
RSH2 Pitched with gable ends
RSH3 Pitched and hipped
RSH4 Pitched with dormers
RSH5 Monopitch
RSH6 Sawtooth
RSH7 Curved
RSH8 Complex regular
RSH9 Complex irregular
RSHO Roof shape, other
Floor -- Floor material, unknown
FN No elevated or suspended floor material (single-storey building)
FM Masonry
FE Earthen
FC Concrete
FME Metal
FW Wood
FO Floor material, other


The lifelines taxonomy includes all infrastructures commonly found in populated areas, such as:

Three main sources of information have been used for the definition of this taxonomy: FP7 EU Project Syner-G, HAZUS11 recommendations, and the OpenStreetMap (OSM) classification system.

Roads and railways

This taxonomy is strongly based on the classification system adopted by OpenStreetMap, since OSM is undoubtedly the largest and most complete source of open information concerning the location of roads and railways. The taxonomy string is simply TYPE+CATEGORY, e.g.

Secondary road: RDN+SE

Attribute Code Description
Road network RDN+MO Motorway: restricted access major divided highway (i.e. freeway), normally with 2 or more running lanes plus emergency hard shoulder
RDN+TR Trunk: the most important roads in a country's system that aren't motorways (not necessarily be a divided highway)
RDN+PR Primary: the next most important roads in a country's system (often link larger towns)
RDN+SE Secondary: the next most important roads in a country's system (often link towns)
RDN+TE Tertiary: the next most important roads in a country's system (often link smaller towns and villages)
RDN+UN Unclassified: the least important through roads in a country's system (often link villages and hamlets)
RDN+RE Residential: roads which serve as an access to housing, without function of connecting settlements. Often lined with housing.
RDN+SR Service: access roads to, or within an industrial estate, camp site, business park, car park etc.
RDN Unknown: no information concerning road typology
Railway network RLW+LR Light rail: a higher-standard tram system, normally in its own right-of-way. Often reaches a considerable length (tens of kilometer)
RLW+MR Monorail: a single-rail railway
RLW+RL Rail: full sized passenger or freight trains in the standard gauge for the country or state
RLW+SW Subway: a city passenger underground rail service running mostly grade separated
RLW+TR Tram: one or two carriage rail vehicles, usually sharing motor road.
RLW Unknown: no additional information concerning rail typology.


The taxonomy presented herein has been developed using the classification experience developed in Syner-G and STREST (Crowley et al., 2016). The taxonomy string is simply PPL/CONTENT/POSITION/MATERIAL/JOINT_TYPE/SOIL_TYPE/DIAMETER, e.g.

Large elevated pipe for potable water: CPW/PEL/DLG

Attribute Code Description
Content CGS Gas
CPW Potable water
CWW Wastewater
COT Other content
-- Unknown
Position PBU Buried
PEL Elevated
Material MPC Polyvinyl chloride
MPE Polyethylene
MCI Cast iron
MDI Ductile iron
MWS Welded steel
MRM Reinforced plastic mortar
MRM Resin transfer moulding
MAC Asbestos-cement
MC Concrete
MCL Clay
MO Other material
MUB Unknown, brittle
MUD Unknown, ductile
-- Unknown material
Joint type JAW Arc welded
JGW Gas welded
JCE Cemented
JFW Fillet weld
JBS Bell and spigot (caulked)
JRI Riveted
JMR Mechanical restrained
JSC Screwed
JRU Rubber gasket
JSG Unknown, segmented
JCO Unknown, continuous
JO Other joint
-- Unknown joint
Soil type SCO Corrosive
SNC Non corrosive
-- Unknown soil type
Diameter DSM Small (< 40 cm)
DLG Large (≥ 40 cm)
-- Unknown diameter

Energy generation and power grid

We follow the taxonomy adopted by HAZUS, which allows capturing the capacity (e.g. voltage) of the elements. For the purposes of assessing damage due to natural disasters, it is also relevant to identify the presence of anchorage and whether the elements have been designed according to a particular code. The taxonomy for component of the power grid can thus be presented in the following manner: PWG/ENERGYSOURCE/COMPONENT/ANCHORAGE/CODE PROVISIONS, e.g.

Electric ditribution line through pylones: PWG/SSM/ANC

Attribute Code Description
Energy Source OIL Oil
GEO Geothermal
NUC Nuclear
HYD Hydroelectric
WND Wind
SOL Solar
TDL Tidal wave
BIO Biomass
O Other
-- Unknown
Power Capacity PC: Value (integer)
-- Unknown power capacity
Power grid SSL Low Voltage (<115 KV) Substation
SSM Medium Voltage (115-500 KV) Substation
SSH High Voltage (>500 KV) Substation
DTC Distribution circuit
TMT Transmission tower
Grid anchorage ANC Anchored
AUN Unanchored
-- Unknown anchorage
Code provisions CDN No code (non-engineered)
CDL Low code
CDM Moderate code
CDH High code
C99 Code provisions unknown

Potable water and wastewater systems

Potable water systems are comprised by water treatment plants, storage tanks, pipelines and pumping stations, while wastewater systems are composed by wasterwater treatment plants, lifting stations and pipelines. Our classification is based on the HAZUS guidelines.

The alphanumeric taxonomy strings are:

Attribute Code Description
Potable water PWR
Component PWS Small potable water treatment plant (<50 MGD)
PWM Medium potable water treatment plant (50-200 MGD)
PWL Large potable water treatment plant (>200 MGD)
PPS Small pumping plant (<10 MGD)
PPM Medium pumping plant (10-50 MGD)
PPL Large pumping plant (>50 MGD)
Anchorage ANC Anchored
AUN Unanchored
-- Unknown anchorage
Code provisions CDN No code (non-engineered)
CDL Low code
CDM Moderate code
CDH High code
-- Code provisions unknown
Wastewater WWR
Component WWS Small wastewater treatment plant (<50 MGD)
WWM Medium wastewater treatment plant (50-200 MGD)
WWL Large wastewater treatment plant (>200 MGD)
LSS Small lift station (<10 MGD)
LSM Medium lift station (10-50 MGD)
LSL Large lift station (>50 MGD)
Anchorage ANC Anchored
AUN Unanchored
-- Unknown anchorage
Code provisions CDN No code (non-engineered)
CDL Low code
CDM Moderate code
CDH High code
-- Code provisions unknown

Communication systems

A communication system is comprised by offices dedicated to the reception and dissimination of information (e.g. telephones offices, call centers, TV stations, radio station, telecomunication stations), supporting transmitter towers and distribution circuits. The components have been classified based on the classification system proposed by HAZUS. For the purposes of assessing damage due to natural disasters, it is also relevant to identify the presence of anchorage and whether the elements have been designed according to a particular code.
The taxonomy string for the components of a communication system is:

Attribute Code Description
Component TRD AM or FM radio transmitters
TTV TV stations or transmitters
TWE Weather stations or transmitters
TTT Telecommunication transmitters
TOT Other stations or transmitters
DTC Distribution circuit
Anchorage ANC Anchored
AUN Unanchored
-- Unknown anchorage
Code provisions CDN No code (non-engineered)
CDL Low code
CDM Moderate code
CDH High code
-- Code provisions unknown

Crops, Livestock and Forestry

The taxonomy for crops, livestock and forestry was defined based on existing classification systems supported by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). For crops, the classification system in the 2000 agricultural census programme was adopted. This system comprises a wide range of attributes such as growing cycle (temporary/permanent), crop species, crop variety, season, land type, amongst others. The taxonomy proposed herein uses the first and second categorization levels proposed by FAO, as well as the growing cycle (e.g. permanent or temporary). A simple alphanumeric code is attributed to each class of crop.


Attribute Code Description
Cereals CRP1+1 Wheat
CRP1+2 Maize
CRP1+3 Rice
CRP1+4 Sorghum
CRP1+5 Barley
CRP1+6 Rye
CRP1+7 Oats
CRP1+8 Millets
CRP1+9 Other
Vegetables and melons CRP2+1 Leafy or stem vegetables
CRP2+2 Fruit-bearing vegetables
CRP2+3 Root, bulb, or tuberous vegetables
CRP2+4 Mushrooms and truffles
CRP2+5 Other
Fruits and nuts CRP3+1 Tropical and subtropical fruits
CRP3+2 Citrus fruits
CRP3+3 Grapes
CRP3+5 Berries
CRP3+6 Pome fruits and stone fruits
CRP3+7 Nuts
CRP3+8 Other
Oilseed crops CRP4+1 Soya beans
CRP4+2 Groundnuts
CRP4+3 Other
Root/tuber crops with high starch or inulin content CRP5+1 Potatoes
CRP5+2 Sweet potatoes
CRP5+3 Cassava Yams
CRP5+4 Other
Beverage and spice crops CRP6+1 Beverage crops
CRP6+2 Spice crops
CRP6+3 Other
Leguminous crops CRP7+1 Beans
CRP7+2 Broad beans
CRP7+3 Chick peas
CRP7+4 Cow peas
CRP7+5 Lentils
CRP7+6 Lupins
CRP7+7 Peas
CRP7+8 Pigeon peas
CRP7+9 Leguminous crops
CRP7+10 Other
Sugar crops CRP8+1 Sugar beet
CRP8+2 Sugar cane
CRP8+3 Sweet sorghum
CRP8+4 Other
Other crops CRP9+1 Grasses and other fodder crops
CRP9+2 Fibre crops
CRP9+3 Medicinal, aromatic, pesticidal, or similar crops
CRP9+4 Rubber
CRP9+5 Flower crops
CRP9+6 Tobacco
CRP9+7 Other
Unknown crop CRP


Attribute Code Description
Large ruminants LVS1+1 Cattle
LVS1+2 Buffaloes
LVS1+3 Yaks
Small ruminants LVS2+1 Sheep
LVS2+2 Goats
Pigs or swines LVS3
Equines LVS4+1 Horses
LVS4+2 Mules and hinnies
LVS4+3 Asses
LVS4+4 Other (e.g. zebras)
Camels and camelids LVS5+1 Camels
LVS5+2 Llamas and alpacas
Poultry LVS6+1 Chickens
LVS6+2 Ducks
LVS6+3 Geese
LVS6+4 Turkeys
LVS6+5 Guinea fowls
LVS6+6 Pigeons
LVS6+7 Other
Other animals LVS7+1 Deer, elk, reindeer
LVS7+2 Fur-bearing animals such as foxes and minks
LVS7+3 Dogs and cats
LVS7+4 Rabbits and hares
LVS7+5 Other (e.g. emus, ostriches, elephants)
Insects LVS8+1 Bees
LVS8+2 Silkworms
LVS8+3 Other worms or insects
Unknown livestock


Attribute Code Description
Closed forest FRT1+1 Mainly evergreen forest - the canopy is never without green foliage, but individual trees may shed their leaves (e.g. Sumatra, Atrato Valley (Colombia), Atlantic slopes of Costa Rica, Amazon Basin).
FRT1+2 Mainly deciduous forest - majority of trees shed their foliage simultaneously in connection to unfavourable season (e.g. North and South America, Southern slopes of the Himalayas and Europe)
FRT1+3 Extremely xeromorphic forest - dense stands of trees, composed by species such as bottle or tuft rees with succulent leaves (e.g. thorn forest in Southwestern North America and Southwestern Africa)
Woodland FRT2+1 Mainly evergreen woodland - the canopy is never without green foliage, but individual trees may shed their leaves (e.g. Mediterranean Basin).
FRT2+2 Mainly deciduous woodland - majority of trees shed their foliage simultaneously in connection to unfavourable season (e.g. Southern California and American Southeast, Mediterranean Basin)
FRT2+3 Extremely xeromorphic woodland - dense stands of trees, composed by species such as bottle or tuft rees with succulent leaves (e.g. Southwestern North America and Southwestern Africa)
Scrub FRT3+1 Mainly evergreen scrub - the canopy is never without green foliage, but individual species may shed their leaves (e.g. Mediterranean dwarf palm shrubland, Chaparral shrubland in California or Hawaiian tree fern thicket).
FRT3+2 Mainly deciduous scrub - majority of scrub shed their foliage simultaneously in connection to unfavourable season (e.g. peat mosses in Scotland)
FRT3+3 Extremely xeromorphic (subdesert) shrubland - very open stands of shrubs, often composed by vegetation with green branches without leaves, some of them with thorns (e.g. mulga scrub in Australia).
Dwarf-scrub and related communities FRT4+1 Mainly evergreen dwarf-scrub - mostly dense dwarf scrub evergreen dominating the landscape (e.g. East Mediterranean mountains).
FRT4+2 Mainly deciduous scrub - majority of vegetation shed their foliage simultaneously in connection to unfavourable season (e.g. Sierra Nevada in California )
FRT4+3 Extremely xeromorphic dwarf-shrubland - more or less open formations consisting of dwarf-shrubs or succulent species (e.g. Australia).
FRT4+4 Tundra - slowly growing, low formations, consisting mainly of dwarf-shrubs beyond the subpolar tree line (e.g. Alaska, Northern Canada, Greenland, Norway, Finland and Siberia).
FRT4+5 Mossy bog formations with dwarf-shrub - peat accumulations formed mainly by mosses which generally cover the surface as well (e.g. Western Siberian Lowlands in Russia).
Herbaceous vegetation FRT5+1 Tall graminoid vegetation - Mostly composed by tall grasslands with heights of over 2 m. Forbs can be presented but their coverage is less than 50% (e.g. Northeast Bolivia, African savannah and upper Nile Valley).
FRT5+2 Medium tall grassland - Mostly composed by grasslands with heights between 0.5 and 2 m. Forbs can be presented but their coverage is less than 50% (e.g. Sahel region in Africa, Eastern Kansas, glasslands in New Zealand)
FRT5+3 Short grassland - Mostly composed by grasslands with heights below 0.5 m. Forbs can be presented but their coverage is less than 50% (e.g. alpine regions of Kenya, Colombia and Venezuela).
FRT5+4 Forb vegetation - the plant community if mostly composed by forbs (more than 50%). (e.g. Sonoran Desert)
FRT5+5 Hydromorphic fresh-water vegetation - mostly composed by aquatic plants that are structurally supported by water, in wet or flooded regions most of the year (e.g. Amazon Basin)

Socio-Economic indicators

Natural hazards are a complex phenomenon featuring large number of interactions that result into loss of lives, livelihoods and interruption of systems. The socio-economic indicators are related to the capacity of populations to prepare, respond and recover from potential damage. For example, education theme is related to awareness, which is essential for a population to avoid and cope with a disaster. The Socio-economic Indicators taxonomy aims at identifying and describing a set of variables which provide a basis for understanding and measuring resilience, social vulnerability and economic vulnerability. The taxonomy system is divided into eight main themes (economy, education, environment, government and institutional capacity, index, health, infrastructure and population), each theme is later subdivided to different levels of detail. The eight main themes in the Socio-economic Indicator Taxonomy are the following:

  • Population: defines community demographics: structure, distribution and size.
  • Economy: measures the welfare and social security levels of communities
  • Education: provides information about invested resources and expected outcome of education, access and participation to education
  • Environment: defines the underlying conditions that make an environment susceptible to damage, disaster experience and prevalence
  • Governance and institutional capacity: institutional performance and regulatory efficiency, corruption control and stability of political system
  • Health: population health conditions and health sector capabilities
  • Index: range of indexes that cover different sectors, for example, the Disaster Risk Index used by the United Nation Development programme to monitor the global evolution of risk.
  • Infrastructure: Transportation and communication infrastructure, status and access to utility lifelines


Attribute Code Description
Population Structure POPPPSPOP Population
POPPPSRPP Rural population
POPPPSRUB Urbanization Rate
POPPPSUPR Urban population
POPPPSADP Age dependency ratio
POPPPSAPD Average Population Density (areas over 400 ppl/km2)
POPPPSCAO Percentage of land area with over 400 people per km2
POPPPSIMP Foreign Born Migrants
POPPPSLPF Labour force participation rate - Female
POPPPSNMR Net migration rate
POPPPSPGR Population growth rate
Vulnerable Population POPVNPSLP Slum population in urban areas
POPVNPPUF Population under 5
POPVNPPIP Percentage of the population below income poverty line
POPVNPITA International tourism arrivals
POPVNPFPP Female Population
POPVNPASE Population over 65
POPVNPTPP Refugees (country of origin)


Attribute Code Description
Economic Activity ECOEACVLE Value lost due to electrical outages
ECOEACBEX Budget expenditures
ECOEACCDC Carbon Dioxide Emissions
ECOEACCPI Consumer price index
ECOEACFCE Final consumption expenditure
ECOEACFDP Foreign direct investment, net inflows
ECOEACGCE General government final consumption expenditure
ECOEACGFC Gross fixed capital formation
ECOEACGGE Greenhouse gas emissions
ECOEACGNC GDP Nominal per population
ECOEACGRB General government revenue
ECOEACGS1 Gross savings
ECOEACGUS GNI per capita
ECOEACHEE Net Household final consumption expenditure
ECOEACICR Implied PPP conversion rate
ECOEACIDA Inflation, GDP deflator
ECOEACIPD Income payments (BoP)
ECOEACMEP Military expenditures
ECOEAC039 Adjusted savings: consumption of fixed capital
ECOEACPCM PPP conversion factor (GDP) to market exchange rate ratio
ECOEACPEE Remittance Inflows
ECOEACPEP Public expenditure on education
ECOEACTIN Total investment
ECOEACTR1 International tourism receipts as a percent of total exports
ECOEACTRE International tourism receipts as a percent of GDP
Economic Resources ECOERETRG Total reserves (includes gold)
ECOERE040 Adjusted savings: mineral depletion
ECOERE042 Adjusted savings: energy depletion
ECOERE226 Net ODA received per capita
ECOEREBRE Budget revenues
ECOERECNT Net taxes on products
ECOEREDEX Debt - external
ECOEREGGD General government gross debt
ECOEREGNS Gross national savings
ECOEREGPC GDP at purchasing power parity per capita
ECOEREIRP Inflation rate (consumer prices)
ECOERELAP Land use - arable land
ECOERELCP Land use - permanent crops
ECOEREMQP Money and quasi money (M2)
ECOERENLB General government net lending/borrowing
ECOEREPDP Public debt
ECOERERDE Research and development expenditure
ECOERETRV Tax revenue
ECOERETTR Total tax rate
Economic Composition ECOECPAGR GDP composition by sector - agriculture
ECOECPWRT Wholesale, retail trade, restaurants and hotels (ISIC G-H)
ECOECPTSC Transport, storage and communication (ISIC I)
ECOECPSER GDP - composition by sector - services
ECOECPOTA Other Activities (ISIC J-P)
ECOECPMMU Mining, Manufacturing, Utilities (ISIC C-E)
ECOECPIND GDP composition by sector - industry
ECOECPCON Construction (ISIC F)
ECOECPAHF Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing (ISIC A-B)
Income Distribution and Poverty ECOIDPLIS Income share held by lowest 20%
ECOIDPPPL Population below national poverty line
ECOIDPPOG Poverty gap at $2 a day (PPP)
ECOIDPISF Income share held by fourth 20 %
ECOIDPISH Income share held by highest 20%
ECOIDPISS Income share held by second 20 %
ECOIDPIST Income share held by third 20 %
ECOIDPPGP Poverty gap at $1.25 a day (PPP)
Labour Market ECOLAMLPT Labor force participation rate
ECOLAMRRD Researchers in R&D
ECOLAMTEC Technicians in R&D
ECOLAMUEP Unemployment Rate
ECOLAMEAT Employment in agriculture
ECOLAMEIT Employment in industry
ECOLAMEPT Ratio of youth employment to population ages 15-24
ECOLAMEST Employment in services
ECOLAMFLM Female legislators, senior officials and managers
ECOLAMLAF Labor force
ECOLAMLP1 Female labor participation rate
ECOLAMPET Employment to population ratio ages 15+
Trade Economics ECOTRECID Cost to import
ECOTREMIC Merchandise imports CIF
ECOTREISS Imports of goods and services
ECOTRECED Cost to export
ECOTRE072 Tariff rate, most favored nation, weighted mean, all products percentage
ECOTREMTR Merchandise trade
ECOTREIGD Imports of goods and services (BoP)
ECOTREMEX Merchandise exports to developing economies within region
ECOTREEVI Export volume index
ECOTREEVE Export value index
ECOTREEEE Merchandise exports FOB
ECOTRECPT Container port traffic (TEU: 20 foot equivalent units)


Attribute Code Description
Education Outcome EDUEOCSAF Female population without secondary education or higher
EDUEEOCCT Primary School Completion Rate
EDUEOCEYS Expected Years of Schooling
EDUEOCLFM Ratio of young literate males to females ages 15-24
EDUEOCLFP Illiteracy - female
EDUEOCLMP Illiteracy - male
EDUEOCLTP Illiteracy
EDUEOCMYS Mean Years of Schooling
EDUEOCSAM Male population without secondary education or higher
EDUEOCSTJ Scientific and technical journal articles
Education Access EDUEACEEG Education expenditures
EDUEACPTS Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary
EDUEACPTP Pupil-teacher ratio, primary
EDUEACETG Gross enrollment ratio, tertiary
EDUEACSTG Gross enrollment ratio, secondary
EDUEACBGP Ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary education
EDUEACEPG Gross enrollment ratio, primary
EDUEACCPT Children out of school, primary


Attribute Code Description
Disaster Prevalence ENVDIPDFT Droughts, floods, extreme temperatures
ENVDIPPLM Population living in areas where elevation is below 5 meters
ENVDIPINP Natural disasters - Population affected
ENVDIPIND Natural disasters - Number of deaths
ENVDIPDRR Disaster risk reduction progress score
Basic Geography ENVGEOLAK Land Area
ENVGEOCLK Geographic Classification
ENVGEOFAP Forest area
Landuse/Landcover ENVLULALP Arable land
ENVLULFEC Fertilizer consumption
ENVLULURP Urban pollution
ENVLULPCP Permanent cropland
ENVLULALA Agricultural land
Control of Corruption GICPSCCOC Control of Corruption
GICPSCCRI Corruption Index
Voice and Accountability GICLRVSWP Percentage of seats held by women in national parliaments
GICLRVVOA Voice and Accountability
GICLRVVTE Voter Turnout at last parliamentary Election
GICLRVOIR Official information is available on request
Rule of Law GICLRVETD Equal treatment and absence of discrimination
GICLRVSLR Strength of legal rights index


Attribute Code Description
Political Stability GICAVTCCL Civil conflict is effectively limited
GICPSCPSA Political Stability and Absence of Violence
GICAVTVRG People do not resort to violence to redress personal grievances
GICAVTLCP Losses due to theft, robbery, vandalism, and arson
GICAVTIHO Intentional homicides
Government Effectiveness GICGEFGEF Government Effectiveness
Regulatory Quality GICGEFREQ Regulatory Quality


Attribute Code Description
Health Status HEAHSTFRT Total fertility rate
HEAHSTLRM Lifetime risk of maternal death
HEAHSTMAL Infectious and parasitic diseases: Malaria (DALYs)
HEAHSTMEI One-year-olds lacking immunization against - Measles
HEAHSTTUC Infectious and parasitic diseases: Tuberculosis (DALYs)
HEAHSTMRI Infant mortality rate
HEAHSTMUF Under 5 years mortality rate
HEAHSTPUP Prevalence of undernourishment
HEAHSTUNC Unmet need for contraception
HEAHSTAAP HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate
HEAHSTBAS Births attended by skilled health staff
HEAHSTBRC Crude birth rate
HEAHSTDII Infectious and parasitic diseases: Diarrheal diseases (DALYs)
HEAHSTDPC Dietary Protein Consumption
HEAHSTDRC Crude death rate
HEAHSTLEX Life expectancy at birth
Healthcare Resources HEAHCRHBE Hospital beds
HEAHCREHP Health expenditure, private
HEAHCREPP Health expenditure, public
HEAHCRERH External resources for health
HEAHCRHAT Health expenditure, total
HEAHCRHEC Health expenditure per capita
HEAHCRNMW Nurses and midwives
HEAHCRPHY Physicians


Code Description
INXHDIGIV Inequality adjusted Human Development Index (Gender Inequality Index)
INXHDI012 Human Development Index - 2012
INXXXXSFI State Fragility Index
INXXXXLSC Liner shipping connectivity index
INXXXXGEI Gender Equity Index
INXXXXGBB GEF benefits index for biodiversity
INXXXXEVI Environmental Vulnerability Index
INXXXXESI Environmental Sustainability Index
INXXXXDRI Disaster Risk Index
INXLPICQL Logistics performance index: Competence and quality of logistics services


Attribute Code Description
Energy, Water and Sanitation INFEWSNGC Natural gas - consumption
INFEWSOCB Oil - consumption
INFEWSOPB Oil - production
INFEWSRFC Renewable internal freshwater resources per capita
INFEWSIWR Rural population access to improved water source
INFEWSACE Population with access to electricity
INFEWSECO Electricity - consumption
INFEWSEIP Net energy imports
INFEWSEPR Electricity - production
INFEWSEUP Energy use (kg of oil equivalent)
INFEWSISP Population access to improved sanitation facilities
INFEWSISR Rural population access to improved sanitation facilities
INFEWSISU Urban population access to improved sanitation facilities
INFEWSIWP Population access to improved water source
INFEWSIWU Urban population access to improved water source
Transport and Communication INFTCOBRC Fixed broadband Internet subscribers
INFTCOATF Air transport, freight
INFTCOTLC Telephone lines
INFTCORDE Road density
INFTCOQPI Quality of port infrastructure, WEF
INFTCOMVC Motor vehicles
INFTCOMCC Mobile cellular subscriptions
INFTCORWG Railways, goods transported